EmbLogic's Blog

Program on Array to delete the element

Firstly assign the values on local variable like;

int a[10],i,nul=0;

then values enter in the array by use of scanf;


then enter the value you want to delete;

now compare the entered value with the values of array;

after that ,if value is find then  assign the  nul value on the array.

then print the array


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


In c Array is a collection of variables which is same data type. You can store group of data of same data type in an array.

Array might be belonging to any of the data types
Array size must be a constant value.
It is a best practice to initialize an array to zero or null while declaring, if we don’t assign any values to array.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


all: d1 d2

d1: a.o
gcc -o a a.o
a.o: a.c
gcc -c a.c

d2: b.o
gcc -o b b.o
b.o: b.c
gcc -c b.c

-rm -rf a.o b.o shub
@mkdir -p shub
rm -rf a b

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Dating Sites Are Muslim Haram

You can also make use of the websites substantial research filters, and even their own match ups test. Are you bored of the usual dating? If youre away from the feeling with regard to online dating at the moment, do not endure it Fdating Com. Totally free, high quality experiences can be had in a few minutes of signing up.FDating is a well-known as well as trusted dating site, getting resulted in much more dates, marriages, as well as relationships than every other website. Following her stint at Striscia la Notizia, she continued hosting some more TV show, gained additional prestige together with her diary and enjoyed a good behaving profession within the television show “Carabinieri” as well as in the show associated with enhanc theatre “Buona la Prima”.

  • Belarus Women
  • Filipina Women
  • Uzbekistan Women
  • Switzerland Women

The FDating Program will the work for you by thinning the area from thousands of solitary potential customers to complement a person with a choose group of compatible matches with whom you can build a quality relationship. Coffee Fulfill Bagel lets you focus on 1 complement each day as opposed to many many fits to sift through.Ashley Madison is all about being unfaithful, but that has not stopped it through getting incredibly well-liked. How would I go about producing a new blog that may achieve success in less than a 12 months. Simply doing our part. It’s no surprise because internet dating results in many new relationships. Fulfill in a public location. Understandably, there are a lot of various sites to choose from available. Well, I’m from India. Not only that, however with over Thirteen. Five million people visiting Complement every month from greater than 25 nations, not one other dating web site offers anywhere near the exact same reach. Before you join, the actual application needs to say yes to a person like a member (a rather daunting process) or you need to be invited. Durante tant que premier site de rencontres, je rassemblons l’ensemble des celibataires du monde entier ainsi que succes. Regular membership charges may differ through plan to service. The website also offers Pandora-like music suggestions and could be a great way to discover platonic concert-buddies. Regardless if you are on the very first date, finding someone randomly at a bar, or attempting to let your co-worker understand you have an interest ? you need to understand the body vocabulary.

Fdating 100 Free Dating Site Totally Free For Seniors

It additionally depends on where you are. While within South america, loved ones (such as extended family and shut friends) may be the main concern. You can do most things on FDating for free, but like FDating, you will find benefits open to A-List members, FDatings phrase for premium customers. What do I actually do incorrect or even right Whether you are in to casual activities. brand new friends or a romantic relationship, dating applications make it simple to help to make connections on the run. One of the biggest attracts may be the convenience as well as practicality of meeting someone online. Many of them opt right into a greater amount of education. Some users possess reported bugs (newest revise addressed a number of these).

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

How Create Free Room Spy Bug With A Cell Phone

You can spy on another person without them detecting. Private can help in getting regarding information inside person happen to be spying via. You will have access on the phone’s call information. The spy software will enable you to are aware number of that time that a specific number called user within the phone.

You can track create position among the phone using Google Era. Find out if junior is really at the library or maybe if your employee is really detained in traffic.

Responsible parents make better use of the phone spy research. This isn’t used just by scorned lovers or girlfriends who suspect their partners are cheating on them at issue. Parents can use a mobile phone spy to take note of the calls and texts their children receive too.

Another spy phone disguised as a cell phone has run capabilities. These phone lets you hone in on conversations in your vicinity and listen in on these animals. You can hear them through your receiver, and then it just seems as if finally you are talking from the cell phone, just including people you are eavesdropping on may be employing a cell phone. Some of these types of phones doubles as regular cell phones.

What is cell phone surveillance laptop or computer? Cell phone surveillance software is a highster mobile review: high ranking spy software program that links a cellular telephone to an online business in simple that’s undetectable by person carrying the cell line. The program then stores on the place information it collects from phone, and which will come your way with an username and too a password (and by paying a fee).

If you might need a good mobistealth free software than the article should help a person get started tracking whichever phone you want to spy through. There are a few different regarding sms spy program and I’ll go over the main concepts below that should help set you on the journey. So whether you wish to track family members member, spouse, child, or friend, this page should assist you in getting started. Consider into the article below and learn the quickest way get started tracking a cell phone’s text messages.

Most http://phonetrack-reviews.com/spyera-spy-software-review/ software isn’t free, but a lot of companies ou there are offering to you free demos. All spy review software along with detailed instructions and every one cases is actually important to extremely for you to use and install.

THE GOOD: SpyBubble all the “must have” qualities of intelligence, since GPS tracking, reading text messages, discover name trapped in the listing of addresses / phone contacts, and view call records. In addition, all popular smartphones are supported, regarding example Android, BlackBerry and Symbian.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Buy Instagram Followers Cheap Followers Safe Idigic

It was really easy with Quickfansandlikes exactly where I was in a position to get the optimistic outcomes with no particulars. “I’ve observed each side of this, as a blogger and as somebody that owns a company.We’ve proven the many other web sites that offer free Instagram followers like idigic and may confirm that not one of them function, in case your likely to proceed elsewhere do not trouble as your only going to get hacked or even cheated, all of us squandered hrs finishing surveys upon additional instagram web sites only to find that people had been throwing away the time.

Get Instagram Followers at Idigic Generator

This is usually the first question that most people request when they very first hear of the disposable Instagram follower service that people provide.Improve your exposure upon Instagram.While bloggers happen to be purchasing followers upon Twitter for years, spending money on Instagram follows offers arrived at temperature message since “Instagram is really a huge a part of exactly how well-liked a way blogger is perceived to be,explained Alice Wright, the founding father of blogger discussion board GOMI. You are able to, for instance, publish just photos about getting good followers.Announce your own Instagram profile on additional social networking sites such as Fb, Twitter, Pinterest or anything you might be utilizing. What this means is large worldwide ad revenue.Begin promoting within actually moments.Along with you most likely already know just, one of the most popular social networking sites these days is actually Instagram. People would like to exchange phrases with you, regardless of what you?re selling or performing. Rather, you’re re-directed towards the guaranteed platform of PayPal. Ok, make sure you start by submitting your own Instagram username in the type beneath. The services are also unknown, making certain nobody will ever find out that you simply boosted the actual numbers in your account using free Instagram followers. Unhealthy aspect of nearly all these types of tricks is that fact that they?re slow, tedious as well as excessively time consuming.In the event that post gives you the itch to leave a comment, get it done. Simple because that. People their reach as a cement quantity as well as foundation their own conclusions with that.

  • Instagram Followers With Itunes Money
  • 100 Instagram Followers Very Fast
  • Website To Buy Followers Fast And Easy

As we discussed earlier, with this instagram followers hack your own visits and likes increases exponentially! The following photos a person reveal on your instagram accounts are going to be very important, because they are going to be observed by a large number of instagram followers.The best time is a vital adjustable in anything and everything you do, and that can be applied in order to social media as well. If individuals might ever discover, you would shed just about all credibility and that’s not worthwhile.There’s also plug-ins you can install in your blog that will show the gallery of your Instagram account, or perhaps a present, as-it-is-happening feed of the items you post on Instagram. Things are within the cloud The first thing you must do is to establish an excellent accounts, having a specific concept or even objective in mind. The knowledge we?ve been getting with this hack (in the event that can be named like this) is just incredible viewing as our instagram company accounts recognition increases within moments. Getting enjoys and followers has never been simpler! We will everything for you personally!

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Precision Time Protocol

The Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is a protocol used to synchronize clocks throughout a computer network. On a local area network, it achieves clock accuracy in the sub-microsecond range, making it suitable for measurement and control systems.[1]

PTP was originally defined in the IEEE 1588-2002 standard, officially entitled “Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems” and published in 2002. In 2008, IEEE 1588-2008 was released as a revised standard; also known as PTP Version 2, it improves accuracy, precision and robustness but is not backward compatible with the original 2002 version.[2]

“IEEE 1588 is designed to fill a niche not well served by either of the two dominant protocols, NTP and GPS. IEEE 1588 is designed for local systems requiring accuracies beyond those attainable using NTP. It is also designed for applications that cannot bear the cost of a GPS receiver at each node, or for which GPS signals are inaccessible

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

internet monitoring software free download

While your likelihood of the software are unending, the use should invariably be responsible. Consumption which comes using illegal measures can include tracing particular mobile handsets which you may not have and also installing it. Using other individuals important data and this, as soon as the musical instrument does not are members of you is really an offence punishable.
Phone tracking is usually a relatively recent systems that is extremely fast growing in reputation. When cell phone routines result in be anxious or danger, you may turn to cell phone spying software packages in order to help eliminate capabilities potential issues. Along with a cell phone spy that logs phone data, you get comfortable access to all inbound and outgoing information, e-mail messages, pictures & video clips, web surfing past, telephone information, talk communications, Global positioning system cities, plus more.
The web site now style and performs like it can be a high quality system. Appearance aren’t every little thing, what exactly more vital is a re-model of their Regulate Heart & the most important revealing dashboard in places you login to check out and operate your money.
They have two several watching plans And FlexiSpy Significant considering all the bells and whistles, and FlexiSpy Cost. competitively priced with traditional capabilities. Over the internet these people have a nifty compared to website that enables you to promptly look at the difference between various editions.
FlexiSPY ltd will never ever put out all of your private information or accounts information at all in any respect, with the exception of to abide by a the courtroom choose. When you use our software package to do a crime & a justify or subpoena for reports is distributed by the courtroom structure during a continuing analysis, we are officially likely to conform. This tends to include launch of select advice and other client statistics as directed by way of a decide.
So even when the person attempts to delete their songs, the info will still be preserved and uploaded. Work deadlines are important, nevertheless i don”t feel these literature are generally hurried. You will see the time period and duration of every different connect with, in the event that call was inbound or outing as well as telephone numbers attached. Man Phillip Graham Baumbach best phone spy place of entry into the world Lancaster, date of birth: 15 Apr 1998, activity Taxes Examiners, Hobbyists, and Revenues Brokers.
PhoneSheriff may be a among the very best subtle spyware used by many people today because of their mobile phone hacking conditions. Telephone tracing is not any more complicated and you could decide upon PhoneSheriff to discover the data in time, day and various highlights. Specifically handy but if your unit is taken.
This phone surveillance software system helps you see any photographs and instructional videos that have been preserved for the targeted device. All the time the child or employee information a relevant video or requires graphic using cam device, it will probably be immediately submitted in your mSpy account.
mSpy is allocated by MTechnology Ltd. an organization with head office within the US and therefore the British. The constant survive aid with truthful cell phone numbers, and also the 10-day time reimbursement, can be a powerful issue to your company’s integrity. All monthly payments by way of plastic cards, atm cards, and PayPal, are safely highly refined. The manufacturer has well over 2 yrs of experience with mSpy and also has vanished from having a practically unidentified software to competing with the top brand names that are available, that provides us an effect mSpy is here now to stay in.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

gcc- tool chain

GCC is a popular tool chain that can generate executables for wide range of architectures including x86, ARM v4/v5/v6/v7, and many others. In personal computers GNU GCC is a compiler that compiles an application written for LINUX X86 PC. When the host and target architectures are different, the tool chain is called ” cross compiler “.
You may come across different tool chains to cross compile your application for ARM like arm-none-linux-gnueabi, arm-none-eabi, arm-eabi, arm-fsl-linux-gnueabi-gcc etc.

Tool chains have a loose name convention like arch [-vendor] [-os] – eabi
arch – refers to target architecture (which in our case is ARM)
vendor – refers to toolchain supplier
os – refers to the target operating system
eabi – refers to Embedded Application Binary Interface

some illustrations as follows :

arm-none-eabi – This tool chain targets for ARM architecture, has no vendor, does not target an operating system and complies with the ARM EABI.
arm-none-linux-gnueabi – This toolchain targets the ARM architecture, has no vendor, creates binaries that run on the Linux operating system, and uses the GNU EABI. It is used to target ARM-based Linux systems.

So, If you built your application “helloworld.c” with arm-none-linux-gnueabi-gcc (or) arm-fsl-linux-gnueabi-gcc, executable will work on your ARM target board as the tool chain has only difference in vendor.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Remote Access to Linux

Our office network contains several Windows computers and one Linux desktop. I recently switched from Windows to Linux for most of my work, and have enjoyed its many advantages. But as I became more dependent on the information and applications stored in that computer, I wondered how I could use that system from other locations. This article describes how I solved that problem and shows how you can set up remote access to Linux computers.

My Linux distribution is SUSE Linux 10.1. Our network consists of a Linksys WRT54GS wireless router, a Linksys WMP54G wireless access card in the Linux computer, a Linksys WRE54G repeater to boost the signal quality, and a Maxtor Shared Storage drive, so all the computers have shared storage. My goals were to access the files on both Linux disks (local hard drive and shared storage) and to run applications on the Linux system from any other computer on the Internet. I accomplished these tasks in three largely independent ways, which you can mix and match to suit your needs:
· Secure Shell (SSH)
· File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
· SUSE Linux VNC-based remote administration feature
As a starting point, I assume that your Linux installation and network are already set up, using components similar to mine. The shared file server is not required, but if you have one, see the sidebar (editor: insert link here) for instructions about mounting this resource.


SSH is the Secure SHell service. It is similar to telnet, but with more features, and every transaction is encrypted. Using SSH, you are provided a shell nearly identical to one available locally. This provides all of the command line functionality of Linux. Also, curses applications (like YaST) work through SSH. Keep in mind that because the shell is identical to one available locally, you cannot move files between your SSH client’s system and the SSH server system. For file transfer, FTP is required.

To set up SSH, open up the YaST Control Center and use the Software Management module to make sure you have the package openssh installed. Next, enable the SSH server on your system by selecting YaST’s System tab, opening System Services, and ensuring that the service ssh is enabled.

When you want to access this SSH server from a remote computer, use the ssh command in Linux and Mac OS X. Type the following at the remote computer:


The IP address you use here is either: your company’s static IP address, or the address assigned to your router by your Internet service provider (ISP). If you do not know the IP address of your router, you can find it by visiting www.whatismyipaddress.com.

For Windows, the application PuTTY is the preferred SSH client.


FTP is the File Transfer Protocol. It can be used to move files between where you are (the remote client) and the computer you’re connecting to (your office Linux system).

To set up your Linux computer as an FTP server, use YaST’s Software Management module to make sure you have the vsftpd package installed. Then, check the System Services module to verify that vsftpd is enabled.

Before you can begin to use the FTP server properly, it needs to be configured. The default configuration is for a read-only anonymous server, without permission to see the directory tree. This is fairly useless. You probably want to modify FTP access to allow login with the normal accounts of the system and with write permissions. The general configuration file that vsftpd uses is /etc/vsftpd.conf, which is only writable by root. Make the following changes to this file, which appear below in the same order as in the file.
· Uncomment the line that says “#write_enable=YES”. This permits actions which modify files on your system.
· Uncomment and change the line “#ftpd_banner=”Welcome to FOOBAR FTP service.”” if you want to. This is a message sent to the client when they log in.
· Uncomment the line “#local_enable=YES”. This allows login with the user accounts of the system. These are listed in /etc/passwd.
· Change the line “anonymous_enable=YES” to say “anonymous_enable=NO”. There is no need to allow random passersby to access your system.
· Uncomment the lines “#log_ftp_protocol=YES” and “#xferlog_enable=YES”, which will enable logging of all actions.
To access the FTP service from a remote computer, you can use a command line FTP client. Many are available for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. At the FTP command line, just type


Also, most web browsers support the FTP protocol directly, so you can type ftp:// into the browser bar. Personally, I recommend a GUI FTP tool rather than command line or browser-based utility. I like Filezilla on Windows.

Linux Remote Desktop

Remote desktops create an “almost like you are there” experience for remote users. With a high-speed connection, this is a very nice way to work on your Linux system from another location. SUSE’s remote desktop is based on VNC. To begin, make sure that the VNC-related packages (tightvnc, xorg-x11-Xvnc, kdenetwork3-vnc) are installed on your Linux computer. Next, start the Remote Administration module on the YaST System tab, choose “Allow Remote Administration” and click “Finish”.

To access your Linux system from a remote computer, use a VNC client (RealVNC, TightVNC, UltraVNC, Krdc or KVPnc) and connect to port 5901 of your router’s IP address. If you are somewhere that a VNC client is not available (and installing one is not desirable) the SUSE VNC server allows another connection method. Type :5801 into a standard web browser, and a Java applet will start that remotely mimics your Linux desktop.

Setting up the Router with Port Mapping

There is one last crucial step before any of this can work. Your router must be modified to allow incoming connections to the services you just established. Using a web browser on your office network, enter the IP address of your router’s control panel. (This is usually something like You want to configure port forwarding, also called port mapping. On the Linksys WRT54GS router, this is the first tab under Applications and Gaming. Set your router to forward ports 20, 21, 22, 5801, and 5901 for TCP and UDP traffic, for any application, to the IP address assigned to the Linux computer inside your network. (This address is probably something like Ports 20 and 21 are for FTP, port 22 is for SSH, and ports 5801 and 5901 are for the VNC remote desktop. To find the internal IP address of your Linux system, type ifconfig in a Linux root shell.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Installing and setting TFTPD in Ubuntu

Installing and setting TFTPD in Ubuntu

1. Install tftpd and related packages.
$ sudo apt-get install xinetd tftpd tftp
2. Create /etc/xinetd.d/tftp and put this entry:

service tftp
protocol = udp
port = 69
socket_type = dgram
wait = yes
user = nobody
server = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd
server_args = /tftpboot
disable = no

3. Make /tftpboot directory

$ sudo mkdir /tftpboot
$ sudo chmod -R 777 /tftpboot
$ sudo chown -R nobody /tftpboot

4. Start tftpd through xinetd

$ sudo /etc/init.d/xinetd start

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

GPIO Device driver

GPIO Device driver

Device node creation without using “mknod”
In my last post, where i showed how to write a character gpio driver, i had used mknod for device node creation. Without mknod the device files would not have been created under /dev. So, we had to manually create the device node under /dev using mknod. Now, cannot this manual work be done away with? Of course, it can be done!!.
The automatic creation of device files can be handled with udev. One has to ensure that the major and minor numbers assigned to a device controlled by the driver are exported to user space through the sysfs interface. To know more about this, read “The Linux Device Module” chapter from the Linux Device Drivers book.
Below i am posting the source code for the driver module, the user space application and the Makefile. The user space application and Makefile remain the same. I have only changed the name of the device node under /dev from gpio to gpio_drv. So, the user space application code accordingly reflects this.
The Driver Module:
#define GPIO_NUMBER    149     //any valid gpio number
static dev_t first;         // Global variable for the first device number
static struct cdev c_dev;     // Global variable for the character device structure
static struct class *cl;     // Global variable for the device class
static int init_result;
static ssize_t gpio_read( struct file* F, char *buf, size_t count, loff_t *f_pos )
    char buffer[10];
    int temp = gpio_get_value(GPIO_NUMBER);
    sprintf( buffer, “%1d” , temp );
    count = sizeof( buffer );
    if( copy_to_user( buf, buffer, count ) )
        return -EFAULT;
    if( *f_pos == 0 )
        *f_pos += 1;
        return 1;
        return 0;
static ssize_t gpio_write( struct file* F, const char *buf, size_t count, loff_t *f_pos )
    printk(KERN_INFO “Executing WRITE.\n”);
    switch( buf[0] )
        case ’0′:
        gpio_set_value(GPIO_NUMBER, 0);
        case ’1′:
        gpio_set_value(GPIO_NUMBER, 1);
        printk(“Wrong option.\n”);
    return count;
static int gpio_open( struct inode *inode, struct file *file )
    return 0;
static int gpio_close( struct inode *inode, struct file *file )
    return 0;
static struct file_operations FileOps =
    .owner        = THIS_MODULE,
    .open         = gpio_open,
    .read         = gpio_read,
    .write        = gpio_write,
    .release      = gpio_close,
static int init_gpio(void)
    //init_result = register_chrdev( 0, “gpio”, &FileOps );
    init_result = alloc_chrdev_region( &first, 0, 1, “gpio_drv” );
    if( 0 > init_result )
        printk( KERN_ALERT “Device Registration failed\n” );
        return -1;
    //    printk( KERN_ALERT “Major number is: %d\n”,init_result );
    //    return 0;
    if ( (cl = class_create( THIS_MODULE, “chardev” ) ) == NULL )
        printk( KERN_ALERT “Class creation failed\n” );
        unregister_chrdev_region( first, 1 );
        return -1;
    if( device_create( cl, NULL, first, NULL, “gpio_drv” ) == NULL )
        printk( KERN_ALERT “Device creation failed\n” );
        unregister_chrdev_region( first, 1 );
        return -1;
    cdev_init( &c_dev, &FileOps );
    if( cdev_add( &c_dev, first, 1 ) == -1)
        printk( KERN_ALERT “Device addition failed\n” );
        device_destroy( cl, first );
        class_destroy( cl );
        unregister_chrdev_region( first, 1 );
        return -1;
    return 0;
void cleanup_gpio(void)
    //unregister_chrdev( init_result, “gpio” );
    cdev_del( &c_dev );
    device_destroy( cl, first );
    class_destroy( cl );
    unregister_chrdev_region( first, 1 );
    printk(KERN_ALERT “Device unregistered\n”);
MODULE_DESCRIPTION(“Beagleboard-xM GPIO Driver”);
The User Space Application:
int main(void)
    int fd;
    char gpio_buffer[10];
    char choice[10];
    fd = open( “/dev/gpio_drv”, O_RDWR );
    printf( “Value of fd is: %d”, fd );
    if( fd trigger” in their respective directories.
Now, run the user space application by typing ./gpio_app on the command line prompt. You will be prompted to enter the value “0? or “1? to turn off or turn on the led. You can observe the state of the led pin on your board after this.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Spybubble cell phone tracker software Phonty

Top notch Spy Software program: Why Mothers and fathers Should Have a try

There can be no cutting corners in raising a child but there exist very best spy software programs that could surely help almost every mother and father worry concerning whereabouts of kids. This kind of solution of technological innovation helps make checking handier than it used to be. Making use of cellular telephone to cell phone for records extraction, details originating from a childs or aim for cell phone is often transferred from another location to mothers and fathers smartphone secs just after installment is a winner.

We will keep in mind how vital mobiles are currently. It really is greatly the most functional and also pleasant gizmo someone may have. Other than fundamental connection, you can find far too numerous things one can explore utilizing its consumption. And sky certainly is the limit! For this reason young children rapidly get rid of target more valuable points because their attention has long been damaged by online videos and fitted computer games on the web.

Free mobile spy app for android

Just imagine the amount of money and effort that might be rescued by eliminating the common high priced overseeing in which 1 hires an established to look into another individual through anything private or authorized. If workload is too much, Utilizing a spyware of choice is something parents should look into especially working ones; with phone activities extracted virtually, no substantial info is missed even. Not only do they get to discover what their children has been up to lately, but also track specific location in real-time!

I, for example, used Highster Cell, a cell phone monitor and spy software that computer monitors specific cell phone exercises which include:

texts (even removed varieties)


photos and videos

social media posts and messages

web browser heritage


Gps device spot

to my young girl which I fear considerably. Granted each of these news flash about widespread child abduction and internet based bullying. I surely could receive a rundown of the items she has actually been close to or whichever makes her active every day. Of no matter if she heads your home specifically once dismissal or in other places without having best phone spy software remote cell phone tracker property of her cellphone. We have to go over material after and obvious issues out.

Among the many choices, I chose Highster Cellular since it is apple iphone warm and friendly (no jail busting wanted) and usually tops their list of advised spyware. Above and beyond Highster through the best 10 cellular telephone spy software programs I stumbled upon the web, a single spyware that also found my focus was DDI Tools which is certainly facts extractor and data backup utility in one.

Where to get cellular spy software package

As busy parents, it is high time for you to make use of technologys convenience and check on frequently, reviews and blogs asked questions about spyware found online. Make sure you try to find very best spyware offered and go around particular person sites for a superior comparison oncompatibility and features, the way it works and price.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Basic board bring up of Olinuxino board & solved libncurses issue.

Built the U-boot successfully through the host and built the kernel and wrote the files in sd card.
There was an issue while configuring menu in linux-sunki folder, the issue was libncurses problem in fedora.
Then I installed libncurses by yum install ncurses-* .
After installing the libncurses i was able to access the menuconfig.

Posted in ARM Embedded Processors, Embedded Linux | Leave a comment

How to Write Your Own Linux Kernel Module with a Simple Example

What are kernel modules?

Kernel modules are piece of code, that can be loaded and unloaded from kernel on demand.

Kernel modules offers an easy way to extend the functionality of the base kernel without having to rebuild or recompile the kernel again. Most of the drivers are implemented as a Linux kernel modules. When those drivers are not needed, we can unload only that specific driver, which will reduce the kernel image size.

The kernel modules will have a .ko extension. On a normal linux system, the kernel modules will reside inside /lib/modules//kernel/ directory.

Earlier we discussed how to compile a kernel from the source.

This tutorial explains how to write a Kernel module using a simple Hello World example.
I. Utilities to Manipulate Kernel Modules
1. lsmod – List Modules that Loaded Already

lsmod command will list modules that are already loaded in the kernel as shown beblow.

# lsmod
Module Size Used by
ppp_deflate 12806 0
zlib_deflate 26445 1 ppp_deflate
bsd_comp 12785 0

2. insmod – Insert Module into Kernel

insmod command will insert a new module into the kernel as shown below.

# insmod /lib/modules/3.5.0-19-generic/kernel/fs/squashfs/squashfs.ko

# lsmod | grep “squash”
squashfs 35834 0

3. modinfo – Display Module Info

modinfo command will display information about a kernel module as shown below.

# modinfo /lib/modules/3.5.0-19-generic/kernel/fs/squashfs/squashfs.ko

filename: /lib/modules/3.5.0-19-generic/kernel/fs/squashfs/squashfs.ko
license: GPL
author: Phillip Lougher
description: squashfs 4.0, a compressed read-only filesystem
srcversion: 89B46A0667BD5F2494C4C72
intree: Y
vermagic: 3.5.0-19-generic SMP mod_unload modversions 686

4. rmmod – Remove Module from Kernel

rmmod command will remove a module from the kernel. You cannot remove a module which is already used by any program.

# rmmod squashfs.ko

5. modprobe – Add or Remove modules from the kernel

modprobe is an intelligent command which will load/unload modules based on the dependency between modules. Refer to modprobe commands for more detailed examples.

II. Write a Simple Hello World Kernel Module

1. Installing the linux headers

You need to install the linux-headers-.. first as shown below. Depending on your distro, use apt-get or yum.

# apt-get install build-essential linux-headers-$(uname -r)

2. Hello World Module Source Code

Next, create the following hello.c module in C programming language.

#include // included for all kernel modules
#include // included for KERN_INFO
#include // included for __init and __exit macros

MODULE_DESCRIPTION(“A Simple Hello World module”);

static int __init hello_init(void)
printk(KERN_INFO “Hello world!\n”);
return 0; // Non-zero return means that the module couldn’t be loaded.

static void __exit hello_cleanup(void)
printk(KERN_INFO “Cleaning up module.\n”);


Warning: All kernel modules will operate on kernel space, a highly privileged mode. So be careful with what you write in a kernel module.

3. Create Makefile to Compile Kernel Module

The following makefile can be used to compile the above basic hello world kernel module.

obj-m += hello.o

make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) modules

make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) clean

Use the make command to compile hello world kernel module as shown below.

# make

make -C /lib/modules/3.5.0-19-generic/build M=/home/lakshmanan/a modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.5.0-19-generic’
CC [M] /home/lakshmanan/a/hello.o
Building modules, stage 2.
MODPOST 1 modules
CC /home/lakshmanan/a/hello.mod.o
LD [M] /home/lakshmanan/a/hello.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-3.5.0-19-generic’

The above will create hello.ko file, which is our sample Kernel module.
4. Insert or Remove the Sample Kernel Module

Now that we have our hello.ko file, we can insert this module to the kernel by using insmod command as shown below.

# insmod hello.ko

# dmesg | tail -1
[ 8394.731865] Hello world!

# rmmod hello.ko

# dmesg | tail -1
[ 8707.989819] Cleaning up module.

When a module is inserted into the kernel, the module_init macro will be invoked, which will call the function hello_init. Similarly, when the module is removed with rmmod, module_exit macro will be invoked, which will call the hello_exit. Using dmesg command, we can see the output from the sample Kernel module.

Please note that printk is a function which is defined in kernel, and it behaves similar to the printf in the IO library. Remember that you cannot use any of the library functions from the kernel module.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment